The physical damage of the fabric is the most common cause in the process of textile use. It is mainly divided into two types: one is damage caused by a one-time external force, one is wear caused by long-term use. Today we discuss the fabric’s one-time break in daily life: tensile, break, tear, and burst.
The one-time breakage of the fabric often appears in a particular scene: for example, when you are pulled by a person in the football field, when Hulk changes because of anger, and so on. So what caused these embarrassing situations? On the one hand, there is an external force, on the other hand, the poor physical properties (tensile strength, tear strength, and bursting strength) of these garments.
The main influencing factors of the one-time breakage of the fabric
The tensile strength, tearing and bursting properties of the fabric are related to the properties of the fiber and yarn used, as well as to the structural characteristics of the fabric itself. when the fiber and yarn properties are the same, the different fabric structure often brings great differences in these mechanical properties.
The fabric has certain geometric characteristics, such as length, width and thickness, and the mechanical properties are usually different in each direction. This requires that the properties of the fabric should be studied in at least two directions: length and width, and sometimes take into account the performance of the thickness direction. Most of the embryo cloth is subjected to subsequent processing, such as singeing, scouring, printing and dyeing, heat setting and resin finishing, so that the structure and the performance are greatly changed.
The fabric is the last finished product of the fiber and the yarn, and the performance of the tensile property, the tearing, and the bursting will directly affect the quality performance of the garment-textile. As a result, these physical properties are the main content of evaluating textile quality.
What are the main influencing factors of fabric tensile strength?
when the fabric is broken under the action of tensile force, first, the yarn was changed from the bent state to the straight, and then the stressed yarn starts to be tapered, the fabric is thinned, and the transversely non-stretched yarns are recessed in the inward direction due to the effect of the tangential sliding resistance, and the fabric presents a “beam waist”. At last yarn breaks through the root, and the whole fabric is broken. Through the related test, it is found that the factors affecting the tensile strength of the fabric are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: influencing factors of tensile strength of fabric
|influencing factor||Impact mode||Remark|
|fabric density||Remain the warp density, increase the weft density: the weft strength is enhanced, the warp strength is reduced.
Remain the weft density, increase the warp density: all the weft and warp strength are enhanced.
|The warp and weft density has a certain limit value. If exceed this value, it will have a negative effect on the fabric.|
|fabric structure||plain weave > twill weave > stain weave||Within a certain length, the more interlaced times of fabric yarn, the greater the fabric strength.|
|yarn count||High yarn count, high fabric strength||The yarn density is large and the fabric is thicker|
|yarn twist||Under the critical twist, the twist increase and the strength increase.
When approaching the critical twist, the tensile strength of fabric will drop.
|Before the yarn reaches the critical twist, the tensile strength has reached the maximum.|
|twist direction of yarn||When the twist of warp and weft in the same direction, the tensile strength of fabric increases.|| Considering the characteristics of rotor Yarn
when design fabric
|fiber type||Large difference due to the variety of the varieties. See Table 2.||The determinant of the fabric tensile strength|
Table 2: Tensile strength of chemical fibers woven with various common filaments
|textile material||nylon||polyester fiber||polypropylene fiber||acrylic fiber||Polyvinyl chloride fiber|
What is the relationship between tear strength and tensile strength of the fabric?
In the process of fabric tearing, it can be regarded as drawing process of each yarn. The tearing and tensile breaking of the fabric are different: the tensile breaking is the simultaneous force of all the yarns in the tensile direction, when the tension is to a certain extent, the yarns are broken in a short time, while tearing is the yarns break one by one in the fabric. Therefore, there is a positive correlation between the tear strength and tensile strength of the fabric, but it is slightly different, as shown in Table 3 below.
Table 3: differences between tear strength and tensile strength of fabrics
|contrast factor||The tear properties of the fabric
(tensile properties are shown in Table 1.)
|fabric density||When the friction resistance between yarns changes little, the tear strength may increase.
When the frictional resistance between the yarns is increased, the tear strength may be reduced.
|fabric structure||Square weave > twill weave, stain weave > plain weave|
|Fabrics shrinkage||When the shrinkage rate is large, the fabric is elongated, the number of stress roots increase when the yarn is torn, the tearing strength is increased.
When the shrinkage rate is large, the bending degree of the yarn is increased, the yarn is extruded from each other, the tearing strength may be reduced.
The analysis of the bursting strength property of fabric
In the process of bursting, the force of fabric is multidirectional, and the strength and deformation of woven fabric and knitted fabric are anisotropic. Under the action of the bursting, the composite tension along the warp and weft direction first breaks the yarn at the point where the deformation is the largest and the strength is the weakest. Then tearing along the wrap or weft direction, so the crack is usually right-angle or straight-line.
The bursting can be regarded as a comprehensive function of the tensile and tearing of the fabric, so the influence factor refers to the stretching and tearing of the fabric, which is no longer analyzed here. The actual bursting mode of the textile is mainly divided into three types:
1 Solid bursting: standard ASTM D3787 by Fabric Ball-bursting Strength Tester.
2 Liquid bursting: standard ASTM D3786 by hydraulic Bursting Strength Tester.
3 Gas bursting: standard ISO 13938 by Fabric Pneumatic Bursting Tester.
Click here for more detailed information about bursting strength test of fabric.